A more substantial printed book in the vernacular abbacus tradition was the scholarly work *Summa de arithmetica, geometric, proportions et proportionalità*, written by the mathematician Luca Pacioli just a few years later, in 1494. A significant difference between Pacioli’s book and *Treviso Arithmetic* is that Pacioli dealt with negative numbers. The concept of negative numbers was new in Europe, and Pacioli is believed to have provided the first printed explanation.

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